Avail Forex EA Review - Top Forex EA's Expert Advisors ...

Buy Forex Signal Software – A Review of the Best Forex Software Available

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Buy Forex Signal Software – A Review of the Best Forex Software Available

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Buy Forex Signal Software – A Review of the Best Forex Software Available

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Buy Forex Signal Software – A Review of the Best Forex Software Available

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Forex Autopilot – Review of the Most Popular Forex Robot Available to Retail Traders Today

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Forex Autopilot – Review of the Most Popular Forex Robot Available to Retail Traders Today

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Forex Autopilot – Review of the Most Popular Forex Robot Available to Retail Traders Today

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For Canadian Clients of VantageFX (or Canadian Forex Traders in General)

As you likely already know, VantageFX will no longer service Canadians residents as of Nov 30th. This is unfortunate, since VantageFX has done an excellent job serving Canadian clients with higher leverage account options from a well regulated and trusted broker.
Through contacts in the industry, we've been made aware of a new retail account offering at Pacific Union. Pacific Union has a good history of servicing institutional accounts and has only just started taking on retail clients, but they are positioned to service the Canadian clients in the space that VantageFX has left behind.
Further, we were made aware of Pacific Union first by contacts at VantageFX, and then this recommendation was backed up by a trusted source who works closely with both companies.
Again, to be very clear, this post isn't to give undue attention to some random broker.. we are providing this info because Pacific Union is a proper alternative for Canadian based traders that will no longer be serviced by VantageFX.
On that note, I've updated the wiki to include Pacific Union Prime - https://puprime.com:
Subreddit's Canadian Brokers Wiki Page
The only major difference I have noticed so far is lacking MT5, but the word is that Pacific Union will be reviewing MT5 and other enhancements to their offing next quarter after they get past the launch of their retail offering.
Key highlights from my perspective:
Remember, going offshore means you lose CIPF protection on funds, so a well vetted and properly regulated broker is a must!
UPDATE #1: Oct 6th: Took this post off sticky and redacted some info as the connection between VantageFX and Pacific Union Prime was not "official". Pacific Union is still a great alternative / replacement for Canadian clients seeing higher leverage accounts and who are no longer serviced after VantageFX left Canada.
UPDATE #2, Oct 8th: Adjusted this thread again to best reflect where Pacific Union Prime fits with VantageFX and former Canadian VantageFX cleints.
submitted by finance_student to Forex [link] [comments]

No Agent Taobao Direct Buying Guide! Let's view all baby and determine

Taobao Direct Guide for users familiar with 3rd party agents and navigating taobao (with chrome google translate on, hence the title)
What is Taobao direct? Basically instead of copying and pasting the item URL into the agent website, you add items to your cart like a regular ecommerce site, check out, wait for items to arrive in the warehouse (similar to what happens when you use an agent) and then when all your items from various sellers are in, you request the logistics company to send everything to you.
Disclaimer: I have no Chinese fluency written or otherwise. I did everything through Google translate and my experience with how tb works through agents. If something goes wrong I will probably write off the item 🤣 if you communicate a lot with the ts who use translators it also helps get your point across. If you type in English in tb live chat they will redirect you to the HK/tw help staff who have medium English. Also I bought items I purchased previously with an agent or vouched for here on RL or had crazy high reviews/ratings.
Pros:
Cons:
I think the ideal usage for taobao direct would be light items like innerwear, jewelry, soft/non fragile goods, generally clothing and shoes although I don’t know if they will include the box by default.
Please see here for the image guide for ordering Sorry in advance if my descriptions are wonky, I'm not great at following OR writing instructions but hopefully the screenshots make it easier to follow along.
  1. Create an account (there are various guides out there for overseas members) and go into your account and add your home address (or the superbuy warehouse address)
  2. Find your items and change the delivery location to "overseas", add to cart
  3. When you're ready to check out hit check out, enter your cc info on the alipay (remember to use a card that doesn't charge foreign transaction fees) and confirm it goes through.
  4. Wait for all your stuff to come in. When its in the tb warehouse it will show up in the "consolidated delivery" section tagged with a weight (usually volumetric or actual). The 20 day countdown will start once its available for international shipping.
  5. After all your items are in, or you can batch up by selecting items on the consolidated delivery page, submit for delivery. Pay again through alipay.
  6. Use the check logistics option to get the tracking info and wait for your haul!
  7. After receiving but before you open, take photos of it on a scale and the lxwxh with a ruler as well. This is because they will overestimate your shipping but there isn't rehearsal shipping like with agents. You can request a refund after the fact with the "refund/complaint" option on the consolidated delivery page (mine says check refund because I've already gone through it)
  8. Getting a refund: select the "only refund" option, "goods received" and "shipping cost does not match" and leave the full shipping amount in. Upload your measurement and weight photos (make sure the file size is not too big). Within 72hr they will reply and ask you to modify your application with the real amount owed (if any). It will go back to your cc through alipay (may take a few days).
Cost comparison: Even after the 5% sales tax and 3% alipay, it cost me $6.20 total from my credit card statement. A 39 yuan top up for sb is $6.53 as of today (if using paypal). For some the qc pictures and the longer storage period are well worth the difference. However a good compromise is the parcel forwarding option in sb. Instead of shipping to your house you can set up superbuy’s warehouse address and pay in taobao and wait for your items to show up in sb. You also have to submit the item link and the tracking # in superbuy so they can find your stuff. There's no sales tax and usually no shipping and you can select the coupons you want. I had a pair of pants make it to the sb warehouse almost 24hr after ordering, and another 24hr after entering my shipping info and item link in sb, it showed up in my account with free (non hd) pictures of the item. Then I cried putting together the shipping parcel lol.
This is a good way to dodge the sales tax and hold items for longer. However then you're at the mercy of the shipping costs (but you do have more options for delivery lines and you can customize how you want your items packaged too). The taobao warehouse will really throw everything in there, probably in a poly envelope.
The taobao shipping rates are 90yuan for the first .5kg and 48 yuan per every .5 after which is very competitive even after accounting for volumetric weight. Sb ems starts at 186 for the first .5kg and 61y every .5kg after. Of course rates and terms are subject to change with the times.
I had a package that came in at 277g when I measured it at home but I was charged for 1.6kg. After sending in the package images they refunded 144yuan (the true volumetric weight was about .97kg.) Taobao volumetric calculation is lxwxh (cm)/6000. Timeline wise I submitted 8/16 and received 8/28 although I think because it was so light they used epacket/china post because it was not an EMS tracking # big sigh. Still less than 10 days can't complain.
Hope this helps! I'm sure I missed something on this guide so feel free to leave any questions and I will update the post accordingly. Apologies this is very us-centric, I also cannot comment on getting a refund or exchange from sellers before you ship out but there is now english support (albeit a bit wonky) through chat and aliwangwang+google translate can get you pretty far.
Ps: highly recommend using the app too as its easier to get chat messages from the seller. You can screenshot and upload images to Google translate to read the text.
submitted by yuchin to RepLadies [link] [comments]

RBI & how its policies can start to affect the market

Disclaimer: This DD is to help start forming a market view as per RBI announcements. Also a gentle reminder that fundamentals play out over a longer time frame than intraday. The authors take no responsiblity for your yolos.
With contributions by Asli Bakchodi, Bran OP & dragononweed!

What is the RBI?
RBI is the central bank of India. They are one of the key players who affect India’s economic trajectory. They control currency supply, banking rules and more. This means that it is not a bank in which retailers or corporates can open an account with. Instead they are a bank for bankers and the Government of India.
Their functions can be broadly classified into 6.
· Monetary authority
· Financial supervisor for financial system
· Issuer of currency
· Manages Foreign exchange
· Bankers bank
· Banker to the government
This DD will take a look at each of these functions. It will be followed by a list of rates the RBI sets, and how changes in them can affect the market.
1. Monetary Authority
One of RBI’s functions is to achieve the goal of “Price Stability” in the economy. This essentially means achieving an inflation rate that is within a desired limit.
A monetary policy committee (MPC) decides on the desired inflation rate and its limits through majority vote of its 6 members, in consultation with the GoI.
The current inflation target for RBI is as follows
Consumer Price Inflation (CPI): 4%
Upper Limit: 6%
Lower Limit: 2%
An increase in CPI means less purchasing power. Generally speaking, if inflation is too high, the public starts cutting down on spending, leading to a negative impact on the markets. And vice versa. Lower inflation leads to more purchasing power, more spending, more investments leading to a positive impact on the market.
2. Financial Supervisor For Financial System
A financial system consists of financial markets (Capital market, money market, forex market etc.), financial institutions (banks, stock exchanges, NBFC etc) & financial assets (currencies, bills, bonds etc)
RBI supervises this entire system and lays down the rules and regulations for it. It can also use further ‘Selective Credit Controls’ to regulate banks.
3. Issues of currency
The RBI is responsible for the printing of currency notes. RBI is free to print as much as it wants as long as the minimum reserve of Rs 200 Cr (Gold 112 Cr) is maintained. The RBI has total assets or a balance size sheet of Rs. 51 trillion (April 2020). (1 Trillion = 1 Lakh crore)
India’s current reserves mean our increase in currency circulation is well managed.
4. Manages Foreign Exchange
RBI regulates all of India’s foreign exchange transactions. It is the custodian of all of foreign currencies in India. It allows for the foreign exchange value of the rupee to be controlled. RBI also buy and sell rupees in the foreign exchange market at its discretion.
In case of any currency movement, a country’s central bank can directly intervene to either push the currency up, as India has been doing, or to keep it artificially low, as the Chinese central bank does. To push up a currency, a central bank can sell dollars, which is the global reserve currency, or the currency against which all others are measured. To push down a currency, a central bank can buy dollars.
The RBI deciding this depends on the import/export and financial health of the country. Generally a weaker rupee means imports are more expensive, but are favourable for exports. And a stronger rupee means imports are cheaper but are unfavourable for exports.
A weaker rupee can make foreign investment more lucrative driving up FII. A stronger rupee can have an adverse effect of FII investing in markets.
5. Banker’s Bank
Every bank has to maintain a certain amount of reserve with the RBI. A certain percentage of a bank’s liabilities (anywhere between 3-15% as decided by RBI) has to be maintained in this account. This is called the Cash Reserve Ratio. This is determined by the MPC during the monetary policy review (which happens every six weeks at present).
It lends money from this reserve to other banks if they are short on cash, but generally, it is seen as a last resort move. Banks are encouraged to meet their shortfalls of cash from other resources.
6. Banker to the government
RBI is the entity that carries out ALL monetary transactions on behalf of the Government. It holds custody of the cash balance of the Government, gives temporary loans to both central and state governments and manages the debt operations of the central Government, through instruments of debt and the interest rates associated with them - like bonds.
The different rates set & managed by RBI
- Repo rate
The rate at which RBI is willing to lend to commercial banks is called as Repo Rate.
Banks sometimes need money for emergency or to maintain the SLR and CRR (explained below). They borrow this from RBI but have to pay some interest on it. The interest that is to be paid on the amount to the RBI is called as Repo Rate.
It does not function like a normal loan but acts like a forward contract. Banks have to provide collateral like government bonds, T-bills etc. Repo means Repurchase Option is the true meaning of Repo an agreement where the bank promises to repurchase these government securities after the repo period is over.
As a tool to control inflation, RBI increases the Repo Rate making it more expensive for banks to borrow from the RBI with a view to restrict availability of money. Exact opposite stance shall be taken in case of deflationary environment.
The change of repo rate is aimed to affect the flow of money in the economy. An increase in repo rate decreases the flow of money in the economy, while the decrease in repo rate increases the flow of money in the economy. RBI by changing these rates shows its stance to the economy at large whether they prioritize growth or inflation.
- Reverse Repo Rate
The rate at which the RBI is willing to borrow from the Banks is called as Reverse Repo Rate. If the RBI increases the reverse repo rate, it means that the RBI is willing to offer lucrative interest rate to banks to park their money with the RBI. Banks in this case agree to resell government securities after reverse repo period.
Generally, an increase in reverse repo rate that banks will have a higher incentive to park their money with RBI. It decreases liquidity, affecting the market in a negative manner. Decrease in reverse repo rate increases liquidity affecting the market in a positive manner.
Both the repo rate and reverse repo rate fall under the Liquidity Adjustment Facility tools for RBI.
- Cash reserve ratio (CRR)
Banks in India are required to deposit a specific percentage of their net demand and time liabilities (NDTL) in the form of CASH with the RBI. This minimum ratio (that is the part of the total deposits to be held as cash) is stipulated by the RBI and is known as the CRR or Cash Reserve Ratio. These reserves will not be in circulation at any point in time.
For example, if a bank had a NDTL (like current Account, Savings Account and Fixed Deposits) of 100Cr and the CRR is at 3%, it would have to keep 3Cr as Cash reserve ratio to the RBI. This amount earns no interest.
Currently it is at 3%. A lower cash ratio means banks can deposit just a lower amount and use the remaining money leading to higher liquidity. This translates to more money to invest which is seen as positive for the market. Inversely, a higher cash ratio equates to lower liquidity which translates to a negative market sentiment.
Thus, the RBI uses the CRR to control excess money flow and regulate liquidity in the economy.
- Statutory liquidity ratio (SLR)
Banks in India have to keep a certain percentage of their net demand and time liabilities WITH THEMSELVES. And this can be in the form of liquid assets like gold and government securities, not just cash. A lot of banks keep them in government bonds as they give a decent interest.
The current SLR ratio of 18.25%, which means that for every Rs.100 deposited in a bank, it has to invest Rs.18.50 in any of the asset classes approved by RBI.
A low SLR means higher levels of loans to the private sector. This boosts investment and acts as a positive sentiment for the market. Conversely a high SLR means tighter levels of credit and can cause a negative effect on the market.
Essentially, the RBI uses the SLR to control ease of credit in the economy. It also ensures that the banks maintain a certain level of funds to meet depositor’s demands instead of over liquidation.
- Bank Rate
Bank rate is a rate at which the Reserve Bank of India provides the loan to commercial banks without keeping any security. There is no agreement on repurchase that will be drawn up or agreed upon with no collateral as well. This is different from repo rate as loans taken with repo rate are taken on the basis of securities. Bank rate hence is higher than the repo rate.
Currently the bank rate is 4.25%. Since bank rate is essentially a loan interest rate like repo rate, it affects the market in similar ways.
- Marginal Cost of Funds based Lending Rate (MCLR)
This is the minimum rate below which the banks are not allowed to lend. Raising this rate, makes loans more expensive, drying up liquidity, affecting the market in a negative way. Similarly, lower MCLR rates will bring in high liquidity, affecting the market in a positive way.
MCLR is a varying lending rate instead of a single rate according to the kind of loans. Currently, the MCLR rate is between 6.65% - 7.15%
- Marginal Standing facility
Marginal Standing Facility is the interest rate at which a depository institution (generally banks) lends or borrows funds with another depository institution in the overnight market. Overnight market is the part of financial market which offers the shortest term loans. These loans have to be repaid the next day.
MSF can be used by a bank after it exhausts its eligible security holdings for borrowing under other options like the Liquidity adjustment facilities.
The MSF would be a penal rate for banks and the banks can borrow funds by pledging government securities within the limits of the statutory liquidity ratio.
The current rate stands at 4.25%. The effect it has on the market is synonymous with the other lending rates such as repo rate & bank rate.
- Loan to value ratio
The loan-to-value (LTV) ratio is an assessment of lending risk that financial institutions and other lenders examine before approving a mortgage. Typically, loan assessments with high LTV ratios are considered higher risk loans.
Basically, if a companies preferred form of collateral rises in value and leads the market (growing faster than the market), then the company will see the loans that it signed with higher LTV suddenly reduce (but the interest rate remains the same).
Let’s consider an example of gold as a collateral. Consider a loan was approved with gold as collateral. The market price for gold is Rs 2000/g, and for each g, a loan of Rs 1500 was given. (The numbers are simplified for understanding). This would put LTV of the loan at 1500/2000 = 0.75. Since it is a substantial LTV, say the company priced the loan at 20% interest rate.
Now the next year, the price of gold rose to Rs 3000/kg. This would mean that the LTV of the current loan has changed to 0.5 but the company is not obligated to change the interest rate. This means that even if the company sees a lot of defaults, it is fairly protected by the unexpected surge in the underlying asset. Moreover, since the underlying asset is more valuable, default rates for the loans goes down as people are more protective of the collateral they have placed.
The same scenario for gold is happening right now and is the reason for gold backed loan providers like MUTHOOT to hit ATHs as gold is leading the economy right now. Also, these in these scenarios, it also enables companies to offer additional loan on same gold for those who are interested Instead of keeping the loan amount same most of the gold loan companies.
Based on above, we can see that as RBI changes LTV for certain assets, we are in a position to identify potential institutions that could get a good Quarterly result and try to enter it early.
Conclusion
The above rates contain the ways in the Central Bank manages the monetary policy, growth and inflation in the country.
Its impact on Stock market is often seen when these rates are changed, they act as triggers for the intraday positions on that day. But overall, the outlook is always maintained on how the RBI sees the country is doing, and knee jerk reactions are limited to intraday positions. The long term stance is always well within the limits of the outlook the big players in the market are expecting.
The important thing to keep in mind is that the problems facing the economy needn’t be uni-dimensional. Problems with inflation, growth, liquidity, currency depreciation all can come together, for which the RBI will have to play a balancing role with all it powers to change these rates and the forex reserve. So the effect on the market needs to be given more thought than simply extrapolated as ‘rates go low, markets go up’.
But understanding these individual effects of these rates allows you to start putting together the puzzle of how and where the market and the economy could go.
submitted by crackedminds333 to IndianStreetBets [link] [comments]

APIs offered by brokers and data platforms

I’ve been looking for a broker that has an API for index futures and ideally also futures options. I’m looking to use the API to build a customized view of my risk based on balances, positions, and market conditions.
Searching the algotrading sub I found many API-related posts, but then when I actually read them and their comments, I found they’re often lacking in real substance. It turns out many brokers or data services that have APIs don’t actually support index futures and options via the API, and instead they focus on equities, forex, or cypto. So here’s the list of what I’ve found so far. This isn’t a review of these brokers or APIs and note that I have a specific application in mind (index futures and futures options). Perhaps you’re looking for an API for equities, or you just want data and not a broker, in which case there may be a few options. Also, I’m based in the US so I didn’t really look for brokers or platforms outside the US.
If you have experience with these APIs, please chime in with your thoughts. Also, I may have missed some brokers or platforms. If I did or if you see anything that needs correction please let me know.

Platform Notes
ADM Investor Services No API
Ally Invest Does not support futures instruments
Alpaca Only supports US Equities
Alpha Vantage Does not support futures instruments
AMP Broker with a huge number of platforms available including some with APIs
ApexFutures No API
Arcade Trader No API
AvaTrade Does not support futures instruments
Backtrader Not a data feed; otherwise looks cool but also looks like a one-man shop
Cannon Trading Broker with a variety of platforms, some have API access such as TT
Centerpoint No API
Charles Schwab API does not support futures instruments
Cobra No API
Daniels Trading No API
Discount Trading Broker with a variety of platforms including CQG, Rithmic, TT, some with APIs
Edge Clear Broker with a variety of platforms including CQG, Rithmic, TT, some with APIs
Eroom Now part of Dashprime. Offer a variety of APIs including CQG, TT, CBOE's Silexx, and others via FIX.
ETNA Trader Only supports equities, options (including multi-legs), ETFs, Mutual Funds (Forex with cryptocurrencies coming soon)
ETrade API seems robust but OAuth authorization needs to be refreshed via login once per 24 hours
Futures Online No API
Gain Capital Futures API available, based on .NET; unsure if they are open to retail clients
GFF Brokers Broker with a large number of platforms including some with API access
High Ridge Futures Broker with a variety of platforms including CQG, Rithmic, TT, some with APIs
iBroker API available; contact them for more info
IEX Cloud Looks great but does not support futures instruments
Infinity Futures JSON API available; contact them for more info
Interactive Brokers Client Web API looks promising if clunky
Intrinio Supports futures instruments but is expensive
Koyfin No API
Lightspeed C++ API available
marketstack API for equities available. Does not support futures instruments.
Medved Trader Windows app with a streaming API to various data sources and brokers. See comment below about API beta access.
NinjaTrader Does not support futures options
Norgate Data Not a broker; supports futures data for $270/year
Oanda Forex only; API last updated in 2018
Optimus Futures Broker with a large number of available platforms including some with API access
Phillip Capital Broker with a large number of available platforms including some with API access
polygon.io Expensive but looks slick; does not support futures instruments
Quandl API looks solid; $49/monthly for personal use, does not allow distributing or sharing data; not a broker
Quantconnect Does not expose raw data
Quantopian Does not expose raw data
Quantower Software that connects to multiple brokers and data feeds; API to their software via C# interface
Saxo Markets Broker with extensively documented API
Stage 5 Trading API available through Trading Technologies
Straits Financial Broker with several platforms available including some with APIs such as CQG, R
Sweet Futures Broker with a large number of available platforms including some with API access
TastyWorks There's an unofficial Python API
TenQuant.io Does not support futures instruments
ThinkorSwim Does not support futures instruments via the API
Tiingo Free account tier but does not support futures instruments
TradePro Broker with a number of platforms available; unclear if any are available with API access
Tradier Free developer API account for delayed data but does not support futures instruments
TradeStation Nice looking API docs and supports futures instruments; requires opening an account and a minimum balance of $100k and there’s no trial available
TradeFutures4Less Broker with a variety of platforms including CQG, Rithmic, TT, some with APIs
TradingTechnologies API looks robust; pricing starts at $700/month
TradingView Does not expose data API
Tradovate Technologies API exists, documentation unknown; need to talk to their account team
Wedbush Futures Broker with several platforms offered, a few of which have API access
WEX .NET/COM only; pricing not disclosed on website
Xignite Pricing not disclosed on website but they do support futures instruments
Yahoo Finance API Available through RapidAPI or via direct access; but it’s discontinued and unreliable
Zaner Broker with a variety of platforms including CQG, Rithmic, TT, some with APIs

Wow, this list grew longer than I originally thought it would be. If you spot a mistake, please let me know and I’ll correct it.
Edit:
- added Lightspeed API - updated Dashprime to indicate some of the APIs available - added Medved Trader to table - added marketstack to table
submitted by theloniusmunch to thewallstreet [link] [comments]

EcoFi: The Future of DeFi

EcoFi: The Future of DeFi
The cryptocurrency markets are evolving and changing at an alarming rate. New projects are created on a daily basis in support of change from the old monetary system we have all come to know and hate. Immutable code, applications, decentralized governance entities and exchanges are bringing out the best of blockchain, but sometimes these projects start off with a loud eruption of activity and volume only to fade slowly when development ends or hits a standstill, or even when a clone with more innovation becomes more popular. This is a common problem in the cryptocurrency space that has effectively created and then terminated thousands of legitimate projects and ideas looking to make a difference in this new uncharted world of cryptocurrency. Innovation always catches up, this time in the form of EcoFi.

https://preview.redd.it/db42m7kcisu51.png?width=6510&format=png&auto=webp&s=f375bdf204479b7c869ecd9349f5071b068c2552

EcoFi bills itself as "an open-sourced, permission-less and censorship-resistant protocol built to power safe and responsible innovation in the Decentralized Finance space." EcoFi is focusing on putting an end to the vicious cycle or life and death of new projects by rewarding the communities strength and adoption. It plans on accomplishing this by creating a unique marketplace that builds on the principles of DeFi token pairs and an exclusive marketplace that is housed on the EcoFi website.

https://preview.redd.it/q11uhakbisu51.png?width=4234&format=png&auto=webp&s=ee7ced8f4201323e19f51fa97f17c7d315ebc9d1
The EcoFi economy will consist of 3 tokens: ECO, EcoFi Genesis Token (EGT), and Sprout (SPRT) to bring about an active and innovative marketplace.

ECO has a total supply of 10,000,000 tokens and this supply is capped. ECO is earned during limiting periods which will allow you to farm it. ECO presents an opportunity to pair it with other tokens to create new and diverse liquidity pools. Staking Liquidity tokens via the EcoFi website, users can earn SPRT tokens as rewards. These tokens can also be purchased on Uniswap. ECO's other utility will include using it to obtain unique farm-able NFT's along with curation of NFT's along with other algorithmic-ally backed assets.

EcoFi Genesis Token (EGT) will act as the governance token for the EcoFi ecosystem. It will allow holders to vote and help decide on future development, integration, and decision making in regards to the future of the ecosystem. EGT will also be utilized as a tool to receive airdropped ECO. The DAO Governance platform will be released at a later date. Early adopters and utilizers of the EcoFi economy will be rewarded in both EGT and ECO for helping share the EcoFi vision and helping build its community.

Sprout (SPRT) is the token that is rewarded for staking your ECO. As your yield begins to sprout up from staking, you will be eligible to earn highly unique NFT's not available for purchase. These NFT's will vary in scope, but will include connections to real world assets and even rare easter-egg NFT's.

The EcoFi tokens will be distributed as described below:
- 50% will be given away for public contributions
- 10% will be set aside for use as Eco Genesis Tokens
- 20% will be utilized for airdrops and farming
- 15% will be used for the Ecosystem and marketing
- 5% will be sent to the core development team
https://preview.redd.it/x6n4ywi9isu51.jpg?width=852&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=af563b39b1063792f933d933e0af6e9c16d13b64

It is important to note that from 10/23/20 to 11/3 is the EGT airdrop period. During this period, users will be airdropped 1 ECO for every 100 EGT owned. The public contribution period will also last during the same time period and it will include an ECO member sale of 5,000,000 ECO. After the DAO is live, you will be able to use your EGT to vote.
https://preview.redd.it/5fftge78isu51.jpg?width=924&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=9469ad55f3a4727d2a018fd5e0f75b27fe676d1a

The team behind EcoFi includes a diverse group of developers, artists, traders, and investors that have been a part of the Forex and Cryptocurrency landscape since 2014 with a focus on Ethereum's blockchain and environment. The team has top level Ethereum development skills which will allow for a productive and smooth launch.

https://preview.redd.it/f0h6zik5isu51.jpg?width=931&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=8eca52db558901fdd20037a54f4af4885a437996
Creating a sustainable and active Cryptocurrency ecosystem is difficult over time. Providing a solution via community building/tokenomical development via a decentralized self governance reward system can be the answer to the well known project burnout problem. Unique tokenomics are a very big draw for EcoFi. Adding in unique NFT’s while also planning for the implementation of real world NFT use is not only innovative but setting EcoFi up for a strong competitive build which could potentially pave the way for further NFT usecase. Following the EcoFi community and contributing may turn into one of DeFi’s biggest game-changers.

Pertinent EcoFi Links:
- Litepaper: https://ecofi.io/ECOFI\_LITEPAPER.pdf
- Contact: [email protected]
- Medium: https://medium.com/@EcoFinance/ecofi-eclisping-the-possibilites-of-defi-64b7dcf23fc1
- Website: https://ecofi.io/
- Twitter: https://twitter.com/finance\_eco
- YouTube: https://youtube.com/channel/UCn\_pnNgrKWTsLSP5Jhi7MaQ
- Telegram: https://t.me/EcoFiOfficial
- Airdrop: https://t.me/ecofi\_airdrop\_bot


(I write articles and reviews for legitimate, interesting, up and coming cryptocurrency projects. Feel free to PM me to review your project. Thank you!)
-------------------
Disclaimer: This is not financial advice. The sole purpose of this post/article is to provide and create an informative and educated discussion regarding the project in question. Invest at your own risk.
submitted by Chrisc9234 to CryptoCurrencies [link] [comments]

EcoFi: The Future of DeFi

The cryptocurrency markets are evolving and changing at an alarming rate. New projects are created on a daily basis in support of change from the old monetary system we have all come to know and hate. Immutable code, applications, decentralized governance entities and exchanges are bringing out the best of blockchain, but sometimes these projects start off with a loud eruption of activity and volume only to fade slowly when development ends or hits a standstill, or even when a clone with more innovation becomes more popular. This is a common problem in the cryptocurrency space that has effectively created and then terminated thousands of legitimate projects and ideas looking to make a difference in this new uncharted world of cryptocurrency. Innovation always catches up, this time in the form of EcoFi.

EcoFi bills itself as "an open-sourced, permission-less and censorship-resistant protocol built to power safe and responsible innovation in the Decentralized Finance space." EcoFi is focusing on putting an end to the vicious cycle or life and death of new projects by rewarding the communities strength and adoption. It plans on accomplishing this by creating a unique marketplace that builds on the principles of DeFi token pairs and an exclusive marketplace that is housed on the EcoFi website.

The EcoFi economy will consist of 3 tokens: ECO, EcoFi Genesis Token (EGT), and Sprout (SPRT) to bring about an active and innovative marketplace.

ECO has a total supply of 10,000,000 tokens and this supply is capped. ECO is earned during limiting periods which will allow you to farm it. ECO presents an opportunity to pair it with other tokens to create new and diverse liquidity pools. Staking Liquidity tokens via the EcoFi website, users can earn SPRT tokens as rewards. These tokens can also be purchased on Uniswap. ***ECO'***s other utility will include using it to obtain unique farm-able NFT's along with curation of NFT's along with other algorithmic-ally backed assets.

EcoFi Genesis Token (EGT) will act as the governance token for the EcoFi ecosystem. It will allow holders to vote and help decide on future development, integration, and decision making in regards to the future of the ecosystem. EGT will also be utilized as a tool to receive airdropped ECO. The DAO Governance platform will be released at a later date. Early adopters and utilizers of the EcoFi economy will be rewarded in both EGT and ECO for helping share the EcoFi vision and helping build its community.

Sprout (SPRT) is the token that is rewarded for staking your ECO. As your yield begins to sprout up from staking, you will be eligible to earn highly unique NFT's not available for purchase. These NFT's will vary in scope, but will include connections to real world assets and even rare easter-egg NFT's.

The EcoFi tokens will be distributed as described below:
- 50% will be given away for public contributions
- 10% will be set aside for use as Eco Genesis Tokens
- 20% will be utilized for airdrops and farming
- 15% will be used for the Ecosystem and marketing
- 5% will be sent to the core development team

It is important to note that from 10/23/20 to 11/3 is the EGT airdrop period. During this period, users will be airdropped 1 ECO for every 100 EGT owned. The public contribution period will also last during the same time period and it will include an ECO member sale of 5,000,000 ECO. After the DAO is live, you will be able to use your EGT to vote.

The team behind EcoFi includes a diverse group of developers, artists, traders, and investors that have been a part of the Forex and Cryptocurrency landscape since 2014 with a focus on Ethereum's blockchain and environment. The team has top level Ethereum development skills which will allow for a productive and smooth launch.

Creating a sustainable and active Cryptocurrency ecosystem is difficult over time. Providing a solution via community building/tokenomical development via a decentralized self governance reward system can be the answer to the well known project burnout problem. Unique tokenomics are a very big draw for EcoFi. Adding in unique NFT’s while also planning for the implementation of real world NFT use is not only innovative but setting EcoFi up for a strong competitive build which could potentially pave the way for further NFT usecase. Following the EcoFi community and contributing may turn into one of DeFi’s biggest game-changers.

Pertinent EcoFi Links:
- Litepaper: https://ecofi.io/ECOFI\_LITEPAPER.pdf
- Contact: [email protected]
- Medium: https://medium.com/@EcoFinance/ecofi-eclisping-the-possibilites-of-defi-64b7dcf23fc1
- Website: https://ecofi.io/
- Twitter: https://twitter.com/finance\_eco
- YouTube: https://youtube.com/channel/UCn\_pnNgrKWTsLSP5Jhi7MaQ
- Telegram: https://t.me/EcoFiOfficial
- Airdrop: https://t.me/ecofi\_airdrop\_bot


(I write articles and reviews for legitimate, interesting, up and coming cryptocurrency projects. Feel free to PM me to review your project. Thank you!)
-------------------
Disclaimer: This is not financial advice. The sole purpose of this post/article is to provide and create an informative and educated discussion regarding the project in question. Invest at your own risk.
submitted by Chrisc9234 to CryptoMoonShots [link] [comments]

EcoFi: The Future of DeFi

EcoFi: The Future of DeFi
The cryptocurrency markets are evolving and changing at an alarming rate. New projects are created on a daily basis in support of change from the old monetary system we have all come to know and hate. Immutable code, applications, decentralized governance entities and exchanges are bringing out the best of blockchain, but sometimes these projects start off with a loud eruption of activity and volume only to fade slowly when development ends or hits a standstill, or even when a clone with more innovation becomes more popular. This is a common problem in the cryptocurrency space that has effectively created and then terminated thousands of legitimate projects and ideas looking to make a difference in this new uncharted world of cryptocurrency. Innovation always catches up, this time in the form of EcoFi.

https://preview.redd.it/b6mapsxtjsu51.png?width=6510&format=png&auto=webp&s=89d799c00c9743fe07298d65fac88f6cf5adf998

EcoFi bills itself as "an open-sourced, permission-less and censorship-resistant protocol built to power safe and responsible innovation in the Decentralized Finance space." EcoFi is focusing on putting an end to the vicious cycle or life and death of new projects by rewarding the communities strength and adoption. It plans on accomplishing this by creating a unique marketplace that builds on the principles of DeFi token pairs and an exclusive marketplace that is housed on the EcoFi website.

https://preview.redd.it/akrsqrbujsu51.png?width=4234&format=png&auto=webp&s=8504d94735788ee75fbea54417450c6fdc3ccffb
The EcoFi economy will consist of 3 tokens: ECO, EcoFi Genesis Token (EGT), and Sprout (SPRT) to bring about an active and innovative marketplace.

ECO has a total supply of 10,000,000 tokens and this supply is capped. ECO is earned during limiting periods which will allow you to farm it. ECO presents an opportunity to pair it with other tokens to create new and diverse liquidity pools. Staking Liquidity tokens via the EcoFi website, users can earn SPRT tokens as rewards. These tokens can also be purchased on Uniswap. ***ECO'***s other utility will include using it to obtain unique farm-able NFT's along with curation of NFT's along with other algorithmic-ally backed assets.

EcoFi Genesis Token (EGT) will act as the governance token for the EcoFi ecosystem. It will allow holders to vote and help decide on future development, integration, and decision making in regards to the future of the ecosystem. EGT will also be utilized as a tool to receive airdropped ECO. The DAO Governance platform will be released at a later date. Early adopters and utilizers of the EcoFi economy will be rewarded in both EGT and ECO for helping share the EcoFi vision and helping build its community.

Sprout (SPRT) is the token that is rewarded for staking your ECO. As your yield begins to sprout up from staking, you will be eligible to earn highly unique NFT's not available for purchase. These NFT's will vary in scope, but will include connections to real world assets and even rare easter-egg NFT's.

The EcoFi tokens will be distributed as described below:
- 50% will be given away for public contributions
- 10% will be set aside for use as Eco Genesis Tokens
- 20% will be utilized for airdrops and farming
- 15% will be used for the Ecosystem and marketing
- 5% will be sent to the core development team
https://preview.redd.it/h8l14ihwjsu51.jpg?width=852&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=ef240f6bbee08301b52ea971a3e97a475cb656b6
It is important to note that from 10/23/20 to 11/3 is the EGT airdrop period. During this period, users will be airdropped 1 ECO for every 100 EGT owned. The public contribution period will also last during the same time period and it will include an ECO member sale of 5,000,000 ECO. After the DAO is live, you will be able to use your EGT to vote.
https://preview.redd.it/0145p4xvjsu51.jpg?width=924&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a3996925f2de9dbdd2297c5d5e3824756cb87df1
The team behind EcoFi includes a diverse group of developers, artists, traders, and investors that have been a part of the Forex and Cryptocurrency landscape since 2014 with a focus on Ethereum's blockchain and environment. The team has top level Ethereum development skills which will allow for a productive and smooth launch.

https://preview.redd.it/d7dc6v8vjsu51.jpg?width=931&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=11263b95088bb77fbcecd88f96a1b414aaaf9281
Creating a sustainable and active Cryptocurrency ecosystem is difficult over time. Providing a solution via community building/tokenomical development via a decentralized self governance reward system can be the answer to the well known project burnout problem. Unique tokenomics are a very big draw for EcoFi. Adding in unique NFT’s while also planning for the implementation of real world NFT use is not only innovative but setting EcoFi up for a strong competitive build which could potentially pave the way for further NFT usecase. Following the EcoFi community and contributing may turn into one of DeFi’s biggest game-changers.

Pertinent EcoFi Links:
- Litepaper: https://ecofi.io/ECOFI\_LITEPAPER.pdf
- Contact: [email protected]
- Medium: https://medium.com/@EcoFinance/ecofi-eclisping-the-possibilites-of-defi-64b7dcf23fc1
- Website: https://ecofi.io/
- Twitter: https://twitter.com/finance\_eco
- YouTube: https://youtube.com/channel/UCn\_pnNgrKWTsLSP5Jhi7MaQ
- Telegram: https://t.me/EcoFiOfficial
- Airdrop: https://t.me/ecofi\_airdrop\_bot

(I write articles and reviews for legitimate, interesting, up and coming cryptocurrency projects. Feel free to PM me to review your project. Thank you!)
-------------------
Disclaimer: This is not financial advice. The sole purpose of this post/article is to provide and create an informative and educated discussion regarding the project in question. Invest at your own risk.
submitted by Chrisc9234 to defi [link] [comments]

EcoFi: The Future of DeFi

EcoFi: The Future of DeFi
The cryptocurrency markets are evolving and changing at an alarming rate. New projects are created on a daily basis in support of change from the old monetary system we have all come to know and hate. Immutable code, applications, decentralized governance entities and exchanges are bringing out the best of blockchain, but sometimes these projects start off with a loud eruption of activity and volume only to fade slowly when development ends or hits a standstill, or even when a clone with more innovation becomes more popular. This is a common problem in the cryptocurrency space that has effectively created and then terminated thousands of legitimate projects and ideas looking to make a difference in this new uncharted world of cryptocurrency. Innovation always catches up, this time in the form of EcoFi.

https://preview.redd.it/up8ewyohjsu51.png?width=6510&format=png&auto=webp&s=efc46fa2b0c10c0fccb7170a259a9ee8e05d54c6

EcoFi bills itself as "an open-sourced, permission-less and censorship-resistant protocol built to power safe and responsible innovation in the Decentralized Finance space." EcoFi is focusing on putting an end to the vicious cycle or life and death of new projects by rewarding the communities strength and adoption. It plans on accomplishing this by creating a unique marketplace that builds on the principles of DeFi token pairs and an exclusive marketplace that is housed on the EcoFi website.

https://preview.redd.it/kgw77eeijsu51.png?width=4234&format=png&auto=webp&s=ec77c446521a420f76f17070f665e3e7efc1d36f
The EcoFi economy will consist of 3 tokens: ECO, EcoFi Genesis Token (EGT), and Sprout (SPRT) to bring about an active and innovative marketplace.

ECO has a total supply of 10,000,000 tokens and this supply is capped. ECO is earned during limiting periods which will allow you to farm it. ECO presents an opportunity to pair it with other tokens to create new and diverse liquidity pools. Staking Liquidity tokens via the EcoFi website, users can earn SPRT tokens as rewards. These tokens can also be purchased on Uniswap. ***ECO'***s other utility will include using it to obtain unique farm-able NFT's along with curation of NFT's along with other algorithmic-ally backed assets.

EcoFi Genesis Token (EGT) will act as the governance token for the EcoFi ecosystem. It will allow holders to vote and help decide on future development, integration, and decision making in regards to the future of the ecosystem. EGT will also be utilized as a tool to receive airdropped ECO. The DAO Governance platform will be released at a later date. Early adopters and utilizers of the EcoFi economy will be rewarded in both EGT and ECO for helping share the EcoFi vision and helping build its community.

Sprout (SPRT) is the token that is rewarded for staking your ECO. As your yield begins to sprout up from staking, you will be eligible to earn highly unique NFT's not available for purchase. These NFT's will vary in scope, but will include connections to real world assets and even rare easter-egg NFT's.

The EcoFi tokens will be distributed as described below:
- 50% will be given away for public contributions
- 10% will be set aside for use as Eco Genesis Tokens
- 20% will be utilized for airdrops and farming
- 15% will be used for the Ecosystem and marketing
- 5% will be sent to the core development team

https://preview.redd.it/2g7xy9ahjsu51.jpg?width=852&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=3674d9b107ad96bea6ea210df9cd1a2d1ab98480

It is important to note that from 10/23/20 to 11/3 is the EGT airdrop period. During this period, users will be airdropped 1 ECO for every 100 EGT owned. The public contribution period will also last during the same time period and it will include an ECO member sale of 5,000,000 ECO. After the DAO is live, you will be able to use your EGT to vote.

https://preview.redd.it/kacfw6xfjsu51.jpg?width=924&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=e02568faa9eb098f6b959654830a0541cb90bdc6

The team behind EcoFi includes a diverse group of developers, artists, traders, and investors that have been a part of the Forex and Cryptocurrency landscape since 2014 with a focus on Ethereum's blockchain and environment. The team has top level Ethereum development skills which will allow for a productive and smooth launch.

https://preview.redd.it/jhldatdejsu51.jpg?width=931&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=7ce799eef6ad43e341aa75598f0eb014310c0f22
Creating a sustainable and active Cryptocurrency ecosystem is difficult over time. Providing a solution via community building/tokenomical development via a decentralized self governance reward system can be the answer to the well known project burnout problem. Unique tokenomics are a very big draw for EcoFi. Adding in unique NFT’s while also planning for the implementation of real world NFT use is not only innovative but setting EcoFi up for a strong competitive build which could potentially pave the way for further NFT usecase. Following the EcoFi community and contributing may turn into one of DeFi’s biggest game-changers.

Pertinent EcoFi Links:
- Litepaper: https://ecofi.io/ECOFI\_LITEPAPER.pdf
- Contact: [email protected]
- Medium: https://medium.com/@EcoFinance/ecofi-eclisping-the-possibilites-of-defi-64b7dcf23fc1
- Website: https://ecofi.io/
- Twitter: https://twitter.com/finance\_eco
- YouTube: https://youtube.com/channel/UCn\_pnNgrKWTsLSP5Jhi7MaQ
- Telegram: https://t.me/EcoFiOfficial
- Airdrop: https://t.me/ecofi\_airdrop\_bot

(I write articles and reviews for legitimate, interesting, up and coming cryptocurrency projects. Feel free to PM me to review your project. Thank you!)
-------------------
Disclaimer: This is not financial advice. The sole purpose of this post/article is to provide and create an informative and educated discussion regarding the project in question. Invest at your own risk.
submitted by Chrisc9234 to ethtrader [link] [comments]

No, the British did not steal $45 trillion from India

This is an updated copy of the version on BadHistory. I plan to update it in accordance with the feedback I got.
I'd like to thank two people who will remain anonymous for helping me greatly with this post (you know who you are)
Three years ago a festschrift for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri was published by Shubhra Chakrabarti, a history teacher at the University of Delhi and Utsa Patnaik, a Marxist economist who taught at JNU until 2010.
One of the essays in the festschirt by Utsa Patnaik was an attempt to quantify the "drain" undergone by India during British Rule. Her conclusion? Britain robbed India of $45 trillion (or £9.2 trillion) during their 200 or so years of rule. This figure was immensely popular, and got republished in several major news outlets (here, here, here, here (they get the number wrong) and more recently here), got a mention from the Minister of External Affairs & returns 29,100 results on Google. There's also plenty of references to it here on Reddit.
Patnaik is not the first to calculate such a figure. Angus Maddison thought it was £100 million, Simon Digby said £1 billion, Javier Estaban said £40 million see Roy (2019). The huge range of figures should set off some alarm bells.
So how did Patnaik calculate this (shockingly large) figure? Well, even though I don't have access to the festschrift, she conveniently has written an article detailing her methodology here. Let's have a look.
How exactly did the British manage to diddle us and drain our wealth’ ? was the question that Basudev Chatterjee (later editor of a volume in the Towards Freedom project) had posed to me 50 years ago when we were fellow-students abroad.
This is begging the question.
After decades of research I find that using India’s commodity export surplus as the measure and applying an interest rate of 5%, the total drain from 1765 to 1938, compounded up to 2016, comes to £9.2 trillion; since $4.86 exchanged for £1 those days, this sum equals about $45 trillion.
This is completely meaningless. To understand why it's meaningless consider India's annual coconut exports. These are almost certainly a surplus but the surplus in trade is countered by the other country buying the product (indeed, by definition, trade surpluses contribute to the GDP of a nation which hardly plays into intuitive conceptualisations of drain).
Furthermore, Dewey (2019) critiques the 5% interest rate.
She [Patnaik] consistently adopts statistical assumptions (such as compound interest at a rate of 5% per annum over centuries) that exaggerate the magnitude of the drain
Moving on:
The exact mechanism of drain, or transfers from India to Britain was quite simple.
Convenient.
Drain theory possessed the political merit of being easily grasped by a nation of peasants. [...] No other idea could arouse people than the thought that they were being taxed so that others in far off lands might live in comfort. [...] It was, therefore, inevitable that the drain theory became the main staple of nationalist political agitation during the Gandhian era.
- Chandra et al. (1989)
The key factor was Britain’s control over our taxation revenues combined with control over India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its booming commodity export surplus with the world. Simply put, Britain used locally raised rupee tax revenues to pay for its net import of goods, a highly abnormal use of budgetary funds not seen in any sovereign country.
The issue with figures like these is they all make certain methodological assumptions that are impossible to prove. From Roy in Frankema et al. (2019):
the "drain theory" of Indian poverty cannot be tested with evidence, for several reasons. First, it rests on the counterfactual that any money saved on account of factor payments abroad would translate into domestic investment, which can never be proved. Second, it rests on "the primitive notion that all payments to foreigners are "drain"", that is, on the assumption that these payments did not contribute to domestic national income to the equivalent extent (Kumar 1985, 384; see also Chaudhuri 1968). Again, this cannot be tested. [...] Fourth, while British officers serving India did receive salaries that were many times that of the average income in India, a paper using cross-country data shows that colonies with better paid officers were governed better (Jones 2013).
Indeed, drain theory rests on some very weak foundations. This, in of itself, should be enough to dismiss any of the other figures that get thrown out. Nonetheless, I felt it would be a useful exercise to continue exploring Patnaik's take on drain theory.
The East India Company from 1765 onwards allocated every year up to one-third of Indian budgetary revenues net of collection costs, to buy a large volume of goods for direct import into Britain, far in excess of that country’s own needs.
So what's going on here? Well Roy (2019) explains it better:
Colonial India ran an export surplus, which, together with foreign investment, was used to pay for services purchased from Britain. These payments included interest on public debt, salaries, and pensions paid to government offcers who had come from Britain, salaries of managers and engineers, guaranteed profts paid to railway companies, and repatriated business profts. How do we know that any of these payments involved paying too much? The answer is we do not.
So what was really happening is the government was paying its workers for services (as well as guaranteeing profits - to promote investment - something the GoI does today Dalal (2019), and promoting business in India), and those workers were remitting some of that money to Britain. This is hardly a drain (unless, of course, Indian diaspora around the world today are "draining" it). In some cases, the remittances would take the form of goods (as described) see Chaudhuri (1983):
It is obvious that these debit items were financed through the export surplus on merchandise account, and later, when railway construction started on a large scale in India, through capital import. Until 1833 the East India Company followed a cumbersome method in remitting the annual home charges. This was to purchase export commodities in India out of revenue, which were then shipped to London and the proceeds from their sale handed over to the home treasury.
While Roy's earlier point argues better paid officers governed better, it is honestly impossible to say what part of the repatriated export surplus was a drain, and what was not. However calling all of it a drain is definitely misguided.
It's worth noting that Patnaik seems to make no attempt to quantify the benefits of the Raj either, Dewey (2019)'s 2nd criticism:
she [Patnaik] consistently ignores research that would tend to cut the economic impact of the drain down to size, such as the work on the sources of investment during the industrial revolution (which shows that industrialisation was financed by the ploughed-back profits of industrialists) or the costs of empire school (which stresses the high price of imperial defence)

Since tropical goods were highly prized in other cold temperate countries which could never produce them, in effect these free goods represented international purchasing power for Britain which kept a part for its own use and re-exported the balance to other countries in Europe and North America against import of food grains, iron and other goods in which it was deficient.
Re-exports necessarily adds value to goods when the goods are processed and when the goods are transported. The country with the largest navy at the time would presumably be in very good stead to do the latter.
The British historians Phyllis Deane and WA Cole presented an incorrect estimate of Britain’s 18th-19th century trade volume, by leaving out re-exports completely. I found that by 1800 Britain’s total trade was 62% higher than their estimate, on applying the correct definition of trade including re-exports, that is used by the United Nations and by all other international organisations.
While interesting, and certainly expected for such an old book, re-exporting necessarily adds value to goods.
When the Crown took over from the Company, from 1861 a clever system was developed under which all of India’s financial gold and forex earnings from its fast-rising commodity export surplus with the world, was intercepted and appropriated by Britain. As before up to a third of India’s rising budgetary revenues was not spent domestically but was set aside as ‘expenditure abroad’.
So, what does this mean? Britain appropriated all of India's earnings, and then spent a third of it aboard? Not exactly. She is describing home charges see Roy (2019) again:
Some of the expenditures on defense and administration were made in sterling and went out of the country. This payment by the government was known as the Home Charges. For example, interest payment on loans raised to finance construction of railways and irrigation works, pensions paid to retired officers, and purchase of stores, were payments in sterling. [...] almost all money that the government paid abroad corresponded to the purchase of a service from abroad. [...] The balance of payments system that emerged after 1800 was based on standard business principles. India bought something and paid for it. State revenues were used to pay for wages of people hired abroad, pay for interest on loans raised abroad, and repatriation of profits on foreign investments coming into India. These were legitimate market transactions.
Indeed, if paying for what you buy is drain, then several billions of us are drained every day.
The Secretary of State for India in Council, based in London, invited foreign importers to deposit with him the payment (in gold, sterling and their own currencies) for their net imports from India, and these gold and forex payments disappeared into the yawning maw of the SoS’s account in the Bank of England.
It should be noted that India having two heads was beneficial, and encouraged investment per Roy (2019):
The fact that the India Office in London managed a part of the monetary system made India creditworthy, stabilized its currency, and encouraged foreign savers to put money into railways and private enterprise in India. Current research on the history of public debt shows that stable and large colonies found it easier to borrow abroad than independent economies because the investors trusted the guarantee of the colonist powers.

Against India’s net foreign earnings he issued bills, termed Council bills (CBs), to an equivalent rupee value. The rate (between gold-linked sterling and silver rupee) at which the bills were issued, was carefully adjusted to the last farthing, so that foreigners would never find it more profitable to ship financial gold as payment directly to Indians, compared to using the CB route. Foreign importers then sent the CBs by post or by telegraph to the export houses in India, that via the exchange banks were paid out of the budgeted provision of sums under ‘expenditure abroad’, and the exporters in turn paid the producers (peasants and artisans) from whom they sourced the goods.
Sunderland (2013) argues CBs had two main roles (and neither were part of a grand plot to keep gold out of India):
Council bills had two roles. They firstly promoted trade by handing the IO some control of the rate of exchange and allowing the exchange banks to remit funds to India and to hedge currency transaction risks. They also enabled the Indian government to transfer cash to England for the payment of its UK commitments.

The United Nations (1962) historical data for 1900 to 1960, show that for three decades up to 1928 (and very likely earlier too) India posted the second highest merchandise export surplus in the world, with USA in the first position. Not only were Indians deprived of every bit of the enormous international purchasing power they had earned over 175 years, even its rupee equivalent was not issued to them since not even the colonial government was credited with any part of India’s net gold and forex earnings against which it could issue rupees. The sleight-of-hand employed, namely ‘paying’ producers out of their own taxes, made India’s export surplus unrequited and constituted a tax-financed drain to the metropolis, as had been correctly pointed out by those highly insightful classical writers, Dadabhai Naoroji and RCDutt.
It doesn't appear that others appreciate their insight Roy (2019):
K. N. Chaudhuri rightly calls such practice ‘confused’ economics ‘coloured by political feelings’.

Surplus budgets to effect such heavy tax-financed transfers had a severe employment–reducing and income-deflating effect: mass consumption was squeezed in order to release export goods. Per capita annual foodgrains absorption in British India declined from 210 kg. during the period 1904-09, to 157 kg. during 1937-41, and to only 137 kg by 1946.
Dewey (1978) points out reliability issues with Indian agriculutural statistics, however this calorie decline persists to this day. Some of it is attributed to less food being consumed at home Smith (2015), a lower infectious disease burden Duh & Spears (2016) and diversified diets Vankatesh et al. (2016).
If even a part of its enormous foreign earnings had been credited to it and not entirely siphoned off, India could have imported modern technology to build up an industrial structure as Japan was doing.
This is, unfortunately, impossible to prove. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication that India would've united (this is arguably more plausible than the given counterfactual1). Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been nuked in WW2, much like Japan. Had the British not arrived in India, there is no clear indication India would not have been invaded by lizard people, much like Japan. The list continues eternally.
Nevertheless, I will charitably examine the given counterfactual anyway. Did pre-colonial India have industrial potential? The answer is a resounding no.
From Gupta (1980):
This article starts from the premise that while economic categories - the extent of commodity production, wage labour, monetarisation of the economy, etc - should be the basis for any analysis of the production relations of pre-British India, it is the nature of class struggles arising out of particular class alignments that finally gives the decisive twist to social change. Arguing on this premise, and analysing the available evidence, this article concludes that there was little potential for industrial revolution before the British arrived in India because, whatever might have been the character of economic categories of that period, the class relations had not sufficiently matured to develop productive forces and the required class struggle for a 'revolution' to take place.
A view echoed in Raychaudhuri (1983):
Yet all of this did not amount to an economic situation comparable to that of western Europe on the eve of the industrial revolution. Her technology - in agriculture as well as manufacturers - had by and large been stagnant for centuries. [...] The weakness of the Indian economy in the mid-eighteenth century, as compared to pre-industrial Europe was not simply a matter of technology and commercial and industrial organization. No scientific or geographical revolution formed part of the eighteenth-century Indian's historical experience. [...] Spontaneous movement towards industrialisation is unlikely in such a situation.
So now we've established India did not have industrial potential, was India similar to Japan just before the Meiji era? The answer, yet again, unsurprisingly, is no. Japan's economic situation was not comparable to India's, which allowed for Japan to finance its revolution. From Yasuba (1986):
All in all, the Japanese standard of living may not have been much below the English standard of living before industrialization, and both of them may have been considerably higher than the Indian standard of living. We can no longer say that Japan started from a pathetically low economic level and achieved a rapid or even "miraculous" economic growth. Japan's per capita income was almost as high as in Western Europe before industrialization, and it was possible for Japan to produce surplus in the Meiji Period to finance private and public capital formation.
The circumstances that led to Meiji Japan were extremely unique. See Tomlinson (1985):
Most modern comparisons between India and Japan, written by either Indianists or Japanese specialists, stress instead that industrial growth in Meiji Japan was the product of unique features that were not reproducible elsewhere. [...] it is undoubtably true that Japan's progress to industrialization has been unique and unrepeatable
So there you have it. Unsubstantiated statistical assumptions, calling any number you can a drain & assuming a counterfactual for no good reason gets you this $45 trillion number. Hopefully that's enough to bury it in the ground.
1. Several authors have affirmed that Indian identity is a colonial artefact. For example see Rajan 1969:
Perhaps the single greatest and most enduring impact of British rule over India is that it created an Indian nation, in the modern political sense. After centuries of rule by different dynasties overparts of the Indian sub-continent, and after about 100 years of British rule, Indians ceased to be merely Bengalis, Maharashtrians,or Tamils, linguistically and culturally.
or see Bryant 2000:
But then, it would be anachronistic to condemn eighteenth-century Indians, who served the British, as collaborators, when the notion of 'democratic' nationalism or of an Indian 'nation' did not then exist. [...] Indians who fought for them, differed from the Europeans in having a primary attachment to a non-belligerent religion, family and local chief, which was stronger than any identity they might have with a more remote prince or 'nation'.

Bibliography

Chakrabarti, Shubra & Patnaik, Utsa (2018). Agrarian and other histories: Essays for Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri. Colombia University Press
Hickel, Jason (2018). How the British stole $45 trillion from India. The Guardian
Bhuyan, Aroonim & Sharma, Krishan (2019). The Great Loot: How the British stole $45 trillion from India. Indiapost
Monbiot, George (2020). English Landowners have stolen our rights. It is time to reclaim them. The Guardian
Tsjeng, Zing (2020). How Britain Stole $45 trillion from India with trains | Empires of Dirt. Vice
Chaudhury, Dipanjan (2019). British looted $45 trillion from India in today’s value: Jaishankar. The Economic Times
Roy, Tirthankar (2019). How British rule changed India's economy: The Paradox of the Raj. Palgrave Macmillan
Patnaik, Utsa (2018). How the British impoverished India. Hindustan Times
Tuovila, Alicia (2019). Expenditure method. Investopedia
Dewey, Clive (2019). Changing the guard: The dissolution of the nationalist–Marxist orthodoxy in the agrarian and agricultural history of India. The Indian Economic & Social History Review
Chandra, Bipan et al. (1989). India's Struggle for Independence, 1857-1947. Penguin Books
Frankema, Ewout & Booth, Anne (2019). Fiscal Capacity and the Colonial State in Asia and Africa, c. 1850-1960. Cambridge University Press
Dalal, Sucheta (2019). IL&FS Controversy: Centre is Paying Up on Sovereign Guarantees to ADB, KfW for Group's Loan. TheWire
Chaudhuri, K.N. (1983). X - Foreign Trade and Balance of Payments (1757–1947). Cambridge University Press
Sunderland, David (2013). Financing the Raj: The City of London and Colonial India, 1858-1940. Boydell Press
Dewey, Clive (1978). Patwari and Chaukidar: Subordinate officials and the reliability of India’s agricultural statistics. Athlone Press
Smith, Lisa (2015). The great Indian calorie debate: Explaining rising undernourishment during India’s rapid economic growth. Food Policy
Duh, Josephine & Spears, Dean (2016). Health and Hunger: Disease, Energy Needs, and the Indian Calorie Consumption Puzzle. The Economic Journal
Vankatesh, P. et al. (2016). Relationship between Food Production and Consumption Diversity in India – Empirical Evidences from Cross Section Analysis. Agricultural Economics Research Review
Gupta, Shaibal (1980). Potential of Industrial Revolution in Pre-British India. Economic and Political Weekly
Raychaudhuri, Tapan (1983). I - The mid-eighteenth-century background. Cambridge University Press
Yasuba, Yasukichi (1986). Standard of Living in Japan Before Industrialization: From what Level did Japan Begin? A Comment. The Journal of Economic History
Tomblinson, B.R. (1985). Writing History Sideways: Lessons for Indian Economic Historians from Meiji Japan. Cambridge University Press
Rajan, M.S. (1969). The Impact of British Rule in India. Journal of Contemporary History
Bryant, G.J. (2000). Indigenous Mercenaries in the Service of European Imperialists: The Case of the Sepoys in the Early British Indian Army, 1750-1800. War in History
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How To Build And Manage A Remote Team Immediately

Managers face a new challenge–managing a remote forex trader team with more and more Forex companies looking out for outsourcing. Events such as motivational tactics, task control and Communications still require a specialist approach even if this has been simplified using technology and a high-speed Internet.

The advantages of employing people on a distance are endless and make your competitive edge easy. Your company can help create a talented team of the best specialists in the market because you can not just hire people from everywhere in the world. This is why a remote employment type will continue to gain momentum in the future. It’s all the challenges that value it.

Remote job is very easy–output, autonomy and flexibility. You influence the manner you operate your team, the smoothness and achievement of the company procedures. And although most individuals still think that remote employees are not as productive as usual in office, the reality of the matter is that most remote employees actually see an increase in productivity equal to a complete additional working day.

So how do you efficiently handle a distant team? How can you contribute to its growth, commitment and coordination? Below are some tips that we have collected to assist you find the response.

TIP 1 – Maintain high performance

If your team scatters throughout the world, productivity can be impacted, unless certain measures are taken to keep it. It is not only difficult to say in a virtual environment how much time your staff spend on assignments and how successful they are, but also it is essential to be evident how the entire team handles the workload.

Therefore, it is essential that a business process is well thought-out and that several software tools are used. Training tools such as Toggl or Clockify can help you to really understand the processes underway, the amount of time spent on these projects, and the number of breaks taken in real time. This allows executives to identify the weaknesses of each worker and attempt to solve them.

This doesn’t imply that you need to overuse these applications and develop stringent procedures. If you work remotely, you are likely to choose this due to the flexibility it provides you. Managers need to strike a balance between liberty and coherent timescales for their staff.

For instance, they must decide which communication instruments they use to discuss issues of great significance–Chat with urgent subjects, Email with stuff to wait and Video Calls. Furthermore, all project information must be available to every member of the team (instruments like Google Drive and DropBox may assist). It must also ensure complete transparency and transparency.

They also need to bear in mind always that distant workers can all operate in distinct time zones, so that everyone can tune in to a video call, it is essential to discover a time window. Also, when employing persons, you need to ensure that your location time differences are not more than 3 hours from the time zone of your office. Due to time differences, for each conference you always have to have a very clear agenda and must stick to it.

Finally, you need to measure the yield to always have your hand on the pulse. Try to list all the main points in the work of each team member that indicate the performance. Set clear objectives with measurable outcomes so you can see clearly what is anticipated and how well your staff are responding to these expectations. Hold monthly reviews in the team to see how all people work together and whether everyone handles them properly.

However, do not be scared to give honest feedback, remember that individuals almost always concentrate more on beneficial than adverse points. This is why executives have to be frank and always attempt to discover something useful at the end.

TIP 2 – Strengthen communication skills

For each team, good communication between employees is essential, but for distant teams in particular. The absence of physical attendance and distinct working schedules can all lead your team members to operate as people instead of a united front.

Remote teams effectively need to interact twice if not three times the ordinary team. And executives must support these communications by creating more possibilities.

Set some of your team’s prompters. Say you always mark the time places if you are on your schedule for calls. Select and ensure your team uses the primary communication instruments. Implement instruments like Slack, WebEx and Skype and let your staff know that they are available all the time. Agree on the duration of an email reply so that you understand when to expect answers to your message.

Try as much as necessary to integrate video calls. IMCCAs have found that, when they actively use video conference instruments, 90% of remote personnel feel more linked with their team. Video enables your team to make a name face and bind better. When you see a individual, it’s always simpler to speak to than just by messaging.

Video calling helps your distant team feel moved and isolated less.

Share your screen with your team members to facilitate and clarify clarifications. Create distinct channels for sharing of interesting stuff, such as fun stories, suggestions for films or updates on TV shows that you all view.

Your purpose is to create a virtual environment that fosters and enhances

communication between your team.

TIP 3 – Engaging, Inspiring And Motivating

The main element of effective teamwork is motivation. Entrepreneur says company costs 450 to $550 billion per year in losses of productivity for an unmotivated or de-engaged employee.

Managers who work with remote teams have to invest in them and work hard every day to increase morality. In distant teams it is even more essential to build a powerful corporate culture than in the physical.

Begin with transparency, one of the basic elements of a driven team. You need to make sure that all of your team know precisely what the business is doing, its goals and its role. Share corporate news and updates, celebrate your own accomplishments and attempt to make your team feel real.

Be frank and let them know you as their leader. Discuss yourselves with them and share your private vision. Describe the stuff you handle at the moment, so they know that you do as difficult as you do. Request your advice on various issues and opinions.

Be in keeping with feedback and with your praise in particular. Don’t just ask them to do a nice job, but to highlight certain accomplishments and duties. In corporate public chats, try also to praise your distant staff for their accomplishments throughout the whole business.

Create your team’s rituals and traditions. Celebrate the birthdays and unique occasions of your distant staff. Why doesn’t every team member ask for a brief video that you wish to edit later and send to your partner celebrating?

Improve camaraderie with true private communication through investments at least once a year in corporate retreats where your distant team can meet in reality.

Find out more here about motivating your team.

TIP 4 – Select your team with wisely

Hiring individuals with the correct distance to work is your halfway to achievement. It’s all about everything else. You can also influence your entire team with a lazy or unprofessional distant worker. This is why certain precautions are essential during the recruitment process.

First and foremost, nobody claims you have to employ the individual from the beginning. Test your skills and abilities for a number of months by employing them part-time and giving them the opportunity to work long term when you’re sure they’re a nice addition to your staff.

Don’t be stingy with salaries. Just because your employee is working remotely doesn’t mean that they aren’t doing more than your typical office worker does. In most cases, remote workers are actually doing more, so their salaries have to reflect this.

Make sure your fresh remote staff can function from home. Do you have a good working environment where you can concentrate without distractions? Otherwise, it may be better to propose either paying for co-working space or buying equipment to build that room at home for them.

Take into consideration that your staff can all come from distinct nations and cultures. Learn how to talk obviously and broadly convey your message. Ask your team in their message to use easy phrases and a neutral tone. Maintain a calendar of all global holidays affecting and planning your team members.

Make sure fresh staff are quick to retire. Create a guide with all the primary information about your job and the instruments you use. Ask your team members to share their finest advice on remote working. Recall the faster the better they adjust.

Managing distance teams can be challenging, but actually you can create a skilled, loyal, hard-working team with a few simple rules to assist your company to succeed.
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Bitcoin Broker Understand the Benefits of CryptoCurrency Trading

Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency, which can be spent, saved, or invested, and it can be stolen too. Trading with Bitcoins was considered to be risky, but the current trends show that it has become a big hit the binary options sector. This decentralized currency is not regulated by any Government, or by any central authority.
What determines the price of Bitcoins?
Bitcoin's price is determined according to the supply and demand ratio. Price increases when the demand increases, the rates plummet downwards when the demand falls. Bitcoins in circulation are limited, and new ones are created at a very slow rate. Since it does not have enough cash reserve to move the market price, its price can be extremely volatile.
Bitcoin trading is popular because of -
Binary options Bitcoin trading platform
bitcoin binary options are getting familiar with popularity of these Bitcoins, and its constant fluctuating values. Therefore they are using this opportunity to offer traders with the latest volatile crypto-currency as an additional payment method. Bitcoin brokers providing crypto-currency as trading option include -
Bitcoin brokers provide a simple trading online platform. All you have to do is visit their website, enter your details, and create an account. You can start with demo account to understand the market action.
The trading screen is simple.
Is Bitcoin trading secure?
Bitcoin network is possibly the world's vast spread computing project. The most common weakness here is the user errors. Bitcoin wallet files can get lost, stolen, or deleted accidentally just like any other files in the digital form.
However, users can use sound security strategies to protect their cash. Alternatively, you could choose the service providers who offer high-level security, as well as insurance against loss or theft.
We provide latest information on Bitcoin brokers and online trading platforms on our website. Please visit our website to check out the broker reviews in order to make the right choices.
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Looking For the Latest Forex Market News

People today are always looking for the latest forex market news. There are many great portals and outlets that one may be connected to when looking in the right places. This guide is going to help set investors ahead and make a decent amount of money. Pay attention and take notes to seek the right news available. Forex Brokers Reviews
Of course the internet will always be the best place for the latest news. People always log on to the top news sites in order to get up to the minute news and breaking coverage. When it comes to the forex market, the internet is going to have the latest news that is needed to stay in touch and keep making money.
A forex professional or broker is also a good resource to turn to. These professionals will usually talk over the phone or chat online for a few minutes at a time to get the latest forex news. Take note of what they say, this way you will always be one step ahead and apply what they say to the investments made. forex broker review
Various trading sites will help to extend the online search to get better news. Other traders can speak with other traders online as well as get updates through emails whenever they are at their computer. This helps to make trading more convenient and allows traders to break free of computers for a little while.
Fxweekly.com is also going to help extend the right kind of forex trading news. Again, these publications may be found online and they may be sent to a valid email address. Sign up for weekly updates or even quarterly updates to stay in tune and know what is going on with the market at all times. Top Rated Forex Brokers
The latest forex market news is always just around the corner. As long as the proper outlets and websites are found, the news is going to be quite useful. Get onboard with the best new outlets today and the best investments will be shown to the right traders.
Visit Here - Most Trusted forex brokers
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Bitorex Reviews

Bitorex Reviews

What brings Bitorex Reviews for beginners and experience traders


Bitorex.com
Bitorex is the place that offers incredible quality and professional help and guidance with the best customer support for clients on all accounts.
Using state of the art technology and a modern approach to establish amazing results. Each decision is based on creating the ideal environment with a positive rapport and relationship, so trust and understanding are witnessed with all professional and expert advice.
The team gets to know the clients and we get to know them. Our success is their success, wanting us to succeed.
Bitorex ideology and inception was crafted to trade on the most popular marketing platforms. Always on the edge of innovation and striving to be the best and up to date in the trading industry to deliver the highest possible results.
Take a look on following videos to acquire more info
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1fBXVKvujj4
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pH-FKJp52lg
If you seek to find out how really good then you should visit links bellows from Bitorex reviews made from real clients.
Please visit this link on Trustpilot
Please visit this link on Sitejabber

Bitorex trading assets

With a vast array of trading assets to choose from it will increase your choices when building a portfolio and allow endless opportunities in the trading world.
Strive to attain your goals and dream. They help you get there.
By taking advantage of all of the online tools you will be handed with vast knowledge and professional expertise partnered with the potential to invest from cryptocurrencies, forex, stocks, commodities, indices, and much, much more.
You can read about Ultimate Bitorex Review for 2020 here.

How much is it to get enroll on Bitorex?

Working with Bitorex and their team is free of charge. That means they make sure that;
· Bitorex is completely free
· Bitorex offers free registration
· Fee-free deposits
· Zero Commission accounts
Even if you are new to trading and are a novice when it comes to the industry Bitorex is ideal for both the experienced trader and someone who is just starting to learn about the trading world.
I am a very experienced trader and when I first signed up to use Bitorex I was impressed with the trading platform and online tools. I also asked a few of my friends who are new to trading to test it out and they found it so easy to use and extremely informative with the educative kit they offer as well as the team support staff.
For better help you can read about more help on Steemit community on this link.

New Trader at Bitorex? No problem!

Let Bitorex know you are a new trader as they offer you a personal account with a full manager support package and a quality educative comprehensive approach to trading.
For those traders who are well versed in trading platforms can rest assures that Bitorex has incredibly fast execution, tight spreads, and experts ready to help you 24/7.
For new traders, this service offers comprehensive education and a personal account manager for a full support package.
And if you are an experienced trader, with Bitorex, you have the edge of tight spreads, fast execution, and a team of experts always available for you.
Being 100% regulated as a broker you can rest assured and not lose sleep knowing that they are trusted worldwide.
To find more about info as new trader we urge to read this blog post on TimeBusinessNews.

How to sign up today on Bitorex!?

If you choose to open up an account with Bitorex today you just follow these small simple start-up steps to get your account to start trading with 3 minutes.
First, fill out the quick online form with a few questions with regards to your trading experience than by using our instant online verification to identity simple and effectively you are then able to fund your account and withdraw money anytime.
I have found that Bitorex believes in the highest standards and look to raise the bar every day. The team pledges to deliver the best service they can and use cutting edge technology to find solutions with a team of people who have integrity, impeccable values, and strive to achieve their optimal performance every day.
When choosing an online broker you need to find a company that values ethics and transparency to help build trust with clients and global markets. By always putting clients and partners first to deliver the value of money and finding new ways to understand and serve them in this industry.

Bitorex Trading Platform

Bitorex platform uses many assets that can be traded at the same time which offers major benefits because many trading platforms do not odder these features.
You can translate to different languages and use on all devices from your laptop, PC, Tablet, or smartphones. Trading and many options to choose from available to you where ever you are with cross-platform devices.
In conclusion, Bitorex is one of my favorite trading platforms when trading cryptocurrency and forex. Bitorex reviews was already featured on BusinessModuleHub and BusinessCaseStudies.co.uk
So easy to build experience and user friendly and no fees, unlike its competitors. A massive range of educational resources to enable you to take your trading experience to the next level and see results fast.
Bitorex is flawlessly designed and a must for any trader.
Get on board today!
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BrokerXP Reviews

BrokerXP Reviews

My perspective of How BrokerXP review help me and how can help you also.

In this review, we are taking a look at a trading platform that is used by traders all around the world. BrokerXP offers a varied range of financial products with competitive fees and an easy-to-use trading interface.
With advanced trading tools and charting features.

BrokerXP Slogan

BrokerXP Fees

If trading fees are important to you, then BrokerXP has you covered. BrokerXP offers low spreads that are available to all customers. For forex traders, BrokerXP has no fees at all, this means that you can maximize profits when trading currency pairs. The broker also offers a guaranteed stop-loss order which Is when clients get their stop-loss order rate guaranteed when setting a risk threshold in their position. BrokerXP also offers a 200:1 leverage ratio, which means that for every $1 in your account, you control $200 in the market. So if you are trading and don’t have much capital, you can still generate significant income as your profits can be multiplied by 200x. However, if you are a beginner then it is not advised that you use leverage on your trades. As profits are multiplied, so are losses. Before leveraging, learn the basics and trade using a demo account as this can stop you from losing too much money when you start trading actual capital.

BrokerXP Security

MT4 and BrokerXP have end-to-end encryption that secures trades and funds that are within the trading account itself. Imagine your trading account like a debit card, you wouldn’t put thousands of dollars in your debit card and leave it on a park bench. So when choosing what trading platform you want to go with, make sure that they take the security of your account and funds are serious as you do.
To find more answers please watch this video
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VyMdFz8Rh18

BrokerXP MT4

MetaTrader 4 is seen as the flagship trading platform, used by individual traders at home and large institutional investors alike. The platform is available on iPads, iPhones, Android phones, Android tablets, and just about any other web-enabled device. If you want to use the desktop version, instead of the web-app version, then you can download the desktop version and trade from the version. Once you’ve downloaded or loaded the platform, you can log in using your BrokerXP credentials. You can customize the charting interface, changing between light and dark mode, along with some other interface elements. Like with most online platforms, the security flaws come as a result of the customer not securing their side of things. This means that when you are trading, make sure to use long passwords that are difficult to guess and crack. Also, try and avoid trading on public computers as these can lead to your account being compromised.
On MT4 you will notice some phrases on the trading interface, here is some explanation of what they mean. When you see the Symbol tab, this means that you can choose between markets. BrokerXP offers many different trading asset options. You can trade forex, gold, stocks indices, and more. The volume tab is where you decide on your trading size. When you see 1 lot, this is equal to 100,000 units of the base currency. The Type tab is where you decide on your trade execution mode, we advise that you stick to ‘instant execution’ as this will place a trade as soon as your press ‘buy’ or ‘sell’. If you set a ‘pending order’, then the platform will make the trade when the market opens back up. The forex market is open 24/7, so this execution method will rarely be available. Stop-loss is another term that you may see on the MT4 interface, this means that your trades are exited when your profits hit a predetermined point.
Depending on what type of trader you are, the platform will offer you a specific set of charting timeframes that best suit you. For example, if you are day trading you may look at charts on a 10-minute timeframe. MT4 offers charting timeframes for 1 minute, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 1 hour, 4 hours, 1 day, and 1 month. You can also set custom timeframes in case the standard ones are not suitable for your trading technique.
Along with advanced timeframes, MT4 also offers 30 technical indicators such as the Elliot Wave indicator, Bollinger Bands, and pivot points, along with many more. There are also third-party add-ons that can be integrated with the platform in order to customize your interface further. Add-ons like Stealth Orders and Alarm Manager are two of the most popular addons. The first is an extension, Stealth Orders is designed to anonymize trades, with Alarm Manager helping coordinate alerts and notifications. With MT4, you can also create your own extensions using Java API, which is one of the platforms most advantageous features, as it can make everything unique.

BrokerXP Mobile Trading

The MetaTrader 4 mobile app is designed with the main focus being on ease-of-use. The mobile app is packaged with lots of research tools, advanced charts, and watch lists for scanning, with many more features.
When using BrokerXP’s mobile trading app (MT4), the look and feel of the mobile app have the same appearance as the web version. This means that if you know to operate the web-based platform, then the mobile app will be easy for you to grasp. With charting, you are given the same charts that are offered on the web app. However, due to the mobile screen being smaller, carrying out advanced forex analysis may be more difficult on mobile devices. But for making orders, setting stop loss or checking basic tasks, the mobile app is more than capable of doing so. The main benefit of using the mobile app is that you can make trades on the go. You no longer have to be at your computer or office in order to set trades. Let’s say that you make a trade at home then go grocery shopping. Whilst you are out you realize that you didn’t set stop-loss in your rush and your pair is depreciating when you check. Now, you can use your mobile to exit a position immediately, you don’t need to wait until you get home.

BrokerXP Customer Service

BrokerXP has a great dedicated customer service team, they are very professional and offer solutions to all of the problems that you could present them with. If you are a new trader, then you may encounter some problems when trying to get to grips with a new trading platform, so BrokerXP offers extensive educational resources. These educational resources are designed to help people familiarise themselves with the platform and all of the financial assets that are available to be traded on the BrokerXP platform. The MT4 platform also has a customer support team that is able to deal with any questions or issues that you are having on the trading side of things. MT4 also has a community section for traders, where questions about trading can get answered. A community forum is a great place for you to get tips about trading and non-essential things that the customer support team may not need to answer.
For customer service, you could read here and on this link.
To conclude, BrokerXP is one of the best choices for financial asset trading available.
Their low fees and advanced features make it perfect for beginners and pros alike.
For more reviews, you should visit official reviews on the website, Trustpilot and Sitejabber.
We highly suggest visiting also on Patch following links for more info and updated news
https://patch.com/california/los-angeles/calendaevent/20200929/898131/brokerxp-reviews-are-happening
https://patch.com/california/los-angeles/classifieds/announcements/171418/brokerxp-is-having-own-reviews-in-pacific-palisades
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Binary Options Review; Best Binary Options Brokers

Binary Options Review; Best Binary Options Brokers

Binary Options Review; Best Binary Options Brokers
We have compared the best regulated binary options brokers and platforms in May 2020 and created this top list. Every binary options company here has been personally reviewed by us to help you find the best binary options platform for both beginners and experts. The broker comparison list below shows which binary trading sites came out on top based on different criteria.
You can put different trading signals into consideration such as using payout (maximum returns), minimum deposit, bonus offers, or if the operator is regulated or not. You can also read full reviews of each broker, helping you make the best choice. This review is to ensure traders don't lose money in their trading account.
How to Compare Brokers and Platforms
In order to trade binary options, you need to engage the services of a binary options broker that accepts clients from your country e.g. check US trade requirements if you are in the United States. Here at bitcoinbinaryoptionsreview.com, we have provided all the best comparison factors that will help you select which trading broker to open an account with. We have also looked at our most popular or frequently asked questions, and have noted that these are important factors when traders are comparing different brokers:
  1. What is the Minimum Deposit? (These range from $5 or $10 up to $250)
  2. Are they regulated or licensed, and with which regulator?
  3. Can I open a Demo Account?
  4. Is there a signals service, and is it free?
  5. Can I trade on my mobile phone and is there a mobile app?
  6. Is there a Bonus available for new trader accounts? What are the Terms and
  7. conditions?
  8. Who has the best binary trading platform? Do you need high detail charts with technical analysis indicators?
  9. Which broker has the best asset lists? Do they offer forex, cryptocurrency, commodities, indices, and stocks – and how many of each?
  10. Which broker has the largest range of expiry times (30 seconds, 60 seconds, end of the day, long term, etc?)
  11. How much is the minimum trade size or amount?
  12. What types of options are available? (Touch, Ladder, Boundary, Pairs, etc)
  13. Additional Tools – Like Early closure or Metatrader 4 (Mt4) plugin or integration
  14. Do they operate a Robot or offer automated trading software?
  15. What is Customer Service like? Do they offer telephone, email and live chat customer support – and in which countries? Do they list direct contact details?
  16. Who has the best payouts or maximum returns? Check the markets you will trade.
The Regulated Binary Brokers
Regulation and licensing is a key factor when judging the best broker. Unregulated brokers are not always scams, or untrustworthy, but it does mean a trader must do more ‘due diligence’ before trading with them. A regulated broker is the safest option.
Regulators - Leading regulatory bodies include:
  • CySec – The Cyprus Securities and Exchange Commission (Cyprus and the EU)
  • FCA – Financial Conduct Authority (UK)
  • CFTC – Commodity Futures Trading Commission (US)
  • FSB – Financial Services Board (South Africa)
  • ASIC – Australia Securities and Investment Commission
There are other regulators in addition to the above, and in some cases, brokers will be regulated by more than one organization. This is becoming more common in Europe where binary options are coming under increased scrutiny. Reputable, premier brands will have regulation of some sort.
Regulation is there to protect traders, to ensure their money is correctly held and to give them a path to take in the event of a dispute. It should therefore be an important consideration when choosing a trading partner.
Bonuses - Both sign up bonuses and demo accounts are used to attract new clients. Bonuses are often a deposit match, a one-off payment, or risk-free trade. Whatever the form of a bonus, there are terms and conditions that need to be read.
It is worth taking the time to understand those terms before signing up or clicking accept on a bonus offer. If the terms are not to your liking then the bonus loses any attraction and that broker may not be the best choice. Some bonus terms tie in your initial deposit too. It is worth reading T&Cs before agreeing to any bonus, and worth noting that many brokers will give you the option to ‘opt-out’ of taking a bonus.
Using a bonus effectively is harder than it sounds. If considering taking up one of these offers, think about whether, and how, it might affect your trading. One common issue is that turnover requirements within the terms, often cause traders to ‘over-trade’. If the bonus does not suit you, turn it down.
How to Find the Right Broker
But how do you find a good broker? Well, that’s where BitcoinBinaryOptionsReview.com comes in. We assess and evaluate binary options brokers so that traders know exactly what to expect when signing up with them. Our financial experts have more than 20 years of experience in the financial business and have reviewed dozens of brokers.
Being former traders ourselves, we know precisely what you need. That’s why we’ll do our best to provide our readers with the most accurate information. We are one of the leading websites in this area of expertise, with very detailed and thorough analyses of every broker we encounter. You will notice that each aspect of any broker’s offer has a separate article about it, which just goes to show you how seriously we approach each company. This website is your best source of information about binary options brokers and one of your best tools in determining which one of them you want as your link to the binary options market.
Why Use a Binary Options Trading Review?
So, why is all this relevant? As you may already know, it is difficult to fully control things that take place online. There are people who only pose as binary options brokers in order to scam you and disappear with your money. True, most of the brokers we encounter turn out to be legit, but why take unnecessary risks?
Just let us do our job and then check out the results before making any major decisions. All our investigations regarding brokers’ reliability can be seen if you click on our Scam Tab, so give it a go and see how we operate. More detailed scam reports than these are simply impossible to find. However, the most important part of this website can be found if you go to our Brokers Tab.
There you can find extensive analyses of numerous binary options brokers irrespective of your trading strategy. Each company is represented with an all-encompassing review and several other articles dealing with various aspects of their offer. A list containing the very best choices will appear on your screen as you enter our website whose intuitive design will allow you to access all the most important information in real-time.
We will explain minimum deposits, money withdrawals, bonuses, trading platforms, and many more topics down to the smallest detail. Rest assured, this amount of high-quality content dedicated exclusively to trading cannot be found anywhere else. Therefore, visiting us before making any important decisions regarding this type of trading is the best thing to do.
CONCLUSION: Stay ahead of the market, and recover from all kinds of binary options trading loss, including market losses in bitcoin, cryptocurrency, and forex markets too. Send your request via email to - [email protected]
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